Position sensorless control is an important guarantee for the reliability of marine electric propulsion system. There is no single algorithm that can realize sensorless control in the whole speed range at present. In view of this fact， a novel position sensorless hybrid control strategy based on active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) is proposed. High frequency current injection method is used to estimate the rotor position in zero and low speed regions. In medium and high speed regions, the extended back electromotive force (EMF) method is used to estimate the rotor position. The two estimation schemes are integrated into the control structure, the ADRC controllers for the inner current loop are designed respectively, and the extended state observer is used to achieve high performance position estimation. Finally, a fusion-transition scheme is proposed to solve the problem of switching between the two algorithms. The physical platform experiment verifies the accuracy and strong robustness of the algorithm, which provides a basis for the realization of position sensorless control of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) in the whole speed range.